Simple Apache module

My first Apache module needs to be improved in many ways. Here I am addressing to a few basic requirements, answering only to one specific request; logging using the Apache built-in facility; and generating an HTML document as answer.

We want to set our Apache web server so that it would answer with an HTML page containing a few information on the actual received request, and we want it to give this feedback only when we ask for "hello" on it.

Request-module connection

Apache should know about how to associate a user request to the handler that our module is designed to manage. To do that we add a Location directive in the Apache httpd configuration file.

You'll find this file in the Apache conf directory, named httpd.conf, we open it and we add this section:
<Location /hello>
    SetHandler hello
</Location>
We ask Apache to set the handler "hello" so that it is invoked when is issued a request to the hello page directly under the root of my server.

Secondly, we change the C source code, so that we check the passed request, and we ensure the passed handler matches our expectation:
// ...

static const char* MOD_HANDLER = "hello"; // 1

static int handler(request_rec* r)
{
    if(r->handler == NULL || strcmp(r->handler, MOD_HANDLER)) // 2
    {
        // ...
        return DECLINED; // 3
    }

    // ...

    return OK; // 4
}
1. The handler for this module, it's value is used in httpd.conf, as shown above.
2. Check the handler as passed by Apache.
3. If our module has nothing to say here we return DECLINED, to let know to Apache that it has to look elsewhere.
4. Otherwise, after we did our job, we return OK, saying in this way that Apache could considered the request accomplished.

Apache logging

It is often a good idea to log what is going on in our code, both for debugging and administrative purpose. In this module, it would be nice to have a feedback also when a request is discarded. We get this effect adding this line before "return DECLINED":
ap_log_rerror(APLOG_MARK, APLOG_DEBUG, 0, r, "handling declined: %s", r->handler);
The Apache ap_log_rerror() lets us writing to the Apache error log file, you'll find it in the logs folder, in your Apache httpd installation directory, named "error_log".
APLOG_MARK is just a way to combine the standard __FILE__ and __LINE__ defines in a single symbol, to save a few keystrokes.
After it, we specify the log level, that ranges from APLOG_EMERG down to APLOG_DEBUG (not to mention the TRACE defines, not commonly used, as far as I know). In the httpd.conf file we configure which level of logging we actually want to print to the log file, setting the log level:
LogLevel debug
As you can imagine, in production it is usually a smart move to set the configured log level higher than debug.
Next parameter, here set to 0, is not very interesting here, and it is followed by the pointer to the request, as we get it from Apache.
Finally we have a string, representing what we want to log, and that could include printf-style parameters.

Building a HTML response

Admittedly, an Apache module is not the most programmer-friendly tool to create a HTML page. But it still make sense in such a simple case:
ap_set_content_type(r, "text/html"); // 1
ap_rputs("<html><head><title>Hello Module</title></head><body>", r); // 2
ap_rprintf(r, "handler: %s<br />\n", r->handler); // 3
ap_rprintf(r, "filename: %s<br />\n", r->filename);
ap_rprintf(r, "the_request: %s<br />\n", r->the_request);
ap_rprintf(r, "header_only: %d<br />\n", r->header_only);
ap_rprintf(r, "hostname: %s<br />\n", r->hostname);
ap_rputs("</body></html>", r);
1. Firstly, set the reply content type.
2. To put a static string, as this one, ap_rputs() does an excellent job.
3. When we need to send parametrized stuff, we'd better using ap_rprintf().

As you can see, I generated the answer from the request, extracting a few (more or less) interesting values as received from Apache.

The complete C code for this module is on github. To compile it and add the generated .so to the server, you can use the apxs utility (more details in the previous post). Remember to set the Apache configuration file with the Location/SetHandler directives.

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A minimal Hello World Apache module

After you have set up the Apache development environment, it is time to create a first module.

I tried to create a minimal module, following the K&R's "Hello World" spirit, that I reckon is so rewarding when you are approaching new stuff.

This module is going to be very impolite, trying to answer to all the user requests to the Apache server in the same way. It would even override the standard index.html page on root.

It is made of a module declaration, logically the first thing we are interested in, but traditionally placed at the bottom of the file, and a couple of static functions (I forgot to mention it, but I am developing in plain old C language).

One of the two functions, hooks(), is passed to the module declaration, and it sets a connection between Apache and the other function, that I named handler(), that it is going to be called to handle the user's jobs.

Here is the three guys above mentioned in detail:
static int handler(request_rec* r) // 1
{
    ap_set_content_type(r, "text/plain"); // 2
    ap_rputs("Hello Apache httpd module", r); // 3
    return OK; // 4
}

static void hooks(apr_pool_t* p) // 5
{
    ap_hook_handler(handler, NULL, NULL, APR_HOOK_REALLY_FIRST); // 6
}

module AP_MODULE_DECLARE_DATA hello_module = // 7
{
    STANDARD20_MODULE_STUFF, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, hooks // 8
};
1. This function is called by Apache so that we can provide a reply to a client request. As we can see, as parameter we get a pointer to a structure that actually represents the user request.
2. I am not doing any check here, I always prepare a plain text reply, by calling the Apache function that sets the content type, ...
3. ... and I fill it with a puny string, with the Apache version of the well known puts() function, but reinterpreted for working on a request_rec.
4. Finally I return OK, meaning that my module has been able to fulfill the user request, and Apache could happily consider this job as done.
5. Here I set the hooks that let Apache know which are the functions in my module it can call.
6. The first parameter to ap_hook_handler() is a function that Apache could call to reply to a user request, and the last one is the priority this hook should have in the collection of hooks owned by Apache. Here I am saying that I want full priority.
7. Here is my module declaration. It is known to Apache by the suggestive name of hello_module.
8. And this are a bunch of information we are passing to Apache about our module. The STANDARD20_MODULE_STUFF define is an aggregate of constants that are saying to Apache this is a standard module version 2, and there is not much more to say about it. We'll say something more on the subsequent five NULLs, but more interesting is the last parameter, the function name Apache needs to know to perform the module initialization.

This is almost everything about it. There are a couple of header inclusions you have to perform to let the compiler knowing what the heck are all those ap_... things, namely httpd.h and http_config.h, but you can see the full code on github.

And, well, you have to compile and register this code before you can actually use it on Apache. To do that, there is a nifty Apache utility, apxs, that basically does all the job for us.

In this case, I would call it something like this:
/path/to/apache/bin/apxs -a -i -c mod_hello.c
Then I stop and start Apache, run it, submit any request whatsoever to it through a we browser, and I should always get back the same reply.

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